Industrial Water Analysis
During the past few decades Indian industries have registered a quantum jump, which has contributed to high economic growth but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Consequently, ambient air and water quality is seriously affected which is far lower in comparison to the international standards.
The problem is worse in the case of water pollution. It is found that one-third of the total water pollution comes in the form of effluent discharge, solid wastes and other hazardous wastes. Untreated or allegedly treated effluents have increase the level of toxins in like cyanide and chromium up to 20 times the safe level in 22 critically polluted areas of the country. The surface water is the main source of industries for waste disposal. It is found that almost all rivers are polluted in most of the stretches by some industry or the other.
Although all industries function under the strict guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) but still the environmental situation is far from satisfactory. Different norms and guidelines are given for all the industries depending upon their pollution potentials. In India there are sufficient evidences available related with the mismanagement of industrial wastes.
It is estimated that 22% of worldwide water use is industrial. Water withdrawal can be very high for certain industries, but consumption is generally much lower than that of agriculture.
Water is the source and basis of all life. It is essential for metabolism and is our most important foodstuff. As a solvent and transporting agent it carries not only the vital minerals and nutrients, but also, increasingly, harmful pollutants, which bio accumulate in aquatic or terrestrial organisms. Within the context of quality control and risk assessment there is a need in the water laboratory for cost-effective and fast instruments and methods that can deal with the ever more complex spectrum of harmful substances, the increasing throughput of samples and the decreasing detection limits.
Comprehensive water analysis includes the determination of different sum parameters (e.g., conductivity, pH value, alkalinity, hardness) and several individual substances (e.g., ions). Frequently, these parameters even in case of a high sample throughput are sequentially determined on different instruments.
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